Shape-shifting polymer opens door for medical and other applicationsAmy Walsh (Author) Published Date : Feb 12, 2016 15:11 ET
A research team led by Chemical Engineering Professor Mitch Anthamatten at the University of Rochester created a material that undergoes a shape change that can be triggered by body heat alone, opening the door for new medical and other applications.
The material developed by Anthamatten and graduate student Yuan Meng is a type of shape-memory polymer, which can be programmed to retain a temporary shape until it is triggered typically by heat to return to its original shape.
The key to developing the new polymer was figuring out how to control crystallization that occurs when the material is cooled or stretched. As the material is deformed, polymer chains are locally stretched, and small segments of the polymer align in the same direction in small areas or domains called crystallites, which fix the material into a temporarily deformed shape. As the number of crystallites grows, the polymer shape becomes more and more stable, making it increasingly difficult for the material to revert back to its initial or permanent shape.
Tuning the trigger temperature is only one part of the story, said Anthamatten. We also engineered these materials to store large amount of elastic energy, enabling them to perform more mechanical work during their shape recovery
The ability to tune the trigger temperature was achieved by including molecular linkers to connect the individual polymer strands. Anthamatten s group discovered that linkers inhibit but don t stop crystallization when the material is stretched. By altering the number and types of linkers used, as well as how they re distributed throughout the polymer network, the Rochester researchers were able to adjust the material s stability and precisely set the melting point at which the shape change is triggered.
Heating the new polymer to temperatures near 35 C, just below the body temperature causes the crystallites to break apart and the material to revert to its permanent shape.
Having a polymer with a precisely tunable trigger temperature was only one objective. Of equal importance, Anthamatten and his team wanted the material to be able to deliver a great deal of mechanical work as the shape transforms back to its permanent shape. Consequently, they set out to optimize their polymer networks to store as much elastic energy as possible.
Nearly all applications of shape memory polymers will require that the material pushes or pulls on its surroundings, said Anthamatten. However, researchers seldom measure the amount of mechanical work that shape-memory polymers are actually performing.
Anthamatten s shape-memory polymer is capable of lifting an object one-thousand times its weight. For example, a polymer the size of a shoelace which weighs about a gram could lift a liter of soda.
Anthamatten says the shape-memory polymer could have a variety of applications, including sutures, artificial skin, body-heat assisted medical dispensers, and self-fitting apparel.
Content credit: Peter Iglinski from University of Rochester
Shape-shifting polymer opens door for medical and other applications